I have an issue. A problem. An enigma. Between the proverbial rock and the proverbial hard place. Whatever you might call it. And I will expound upon it a little later on.
But first, as preparation for that, may the reader be pleased to know that I have heard that the Qur'an - with its rambling helter-skelter flowery prose - contains segments denying the Creatorship deity of Jesus Christ plus passages expressing antisemitic suspicion or hatred against both Jews and Christians.
In response to that, I would both courageously and bravely, yet questionably and dangerously, consider cursing both the "allah" of the Koran and its legendary author Mohammed - with completely-innocent impunity.
If I did that, or conspicuously burned one or more copies of the Koran in the presence of the fervent, something akin to the following might likely transpire:
Acts 19:8 And [Paul] entered the synagogue and for three months spoke boldly, arguing and pleading about the kingdom of God;
9 but when some were stubborn and disbelieved, speaking evil of the Way before the congregation, he withdrew from them, taking the disciples with him, and argued daily in the hall of Tyrannus.
10 This continued for two years, so that all the residents of Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks.
11 And God did extraordinary miracles by the hands of Paul,
12 so that handkerchiefs or aprons [Don't try it, Peter Popoff, unless God really calls you to actually do similar things!] were carried away from his body to the sick, and diseases left them and the evil spirits came out of them.
13 Then some of the itinerant Jewish exorcists undertook to pronounce the name of the Lord Jesus over those who had evil spirits, saying, "I adjure you by the Jesus whom Paul preaches."
14 Seven sons of a Jewish high priest named Sceva were doing this.
15 But the evil spirit answered them, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are you?"
16 And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, mastered all of them, and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded [so can you imagine a presumptuous hedonistic american fatally ordering beheadings-accustomed bearded Iranian or Saudi or Iraqi or Lebanese or Syrian or other arab men to force their harem wives and concubines to publicly strip down to bikinis?].
23 About that time there arose no little stir concerning the Way.
24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Artemis, brought no little business to the craftsmen [the ultimate no-Right-to-Work-allowed mafia-like union boss].
25 These he gathered together, with the workmen of like occupation, and said, "Men, you know that from this business we have our wealth.
26 And you see and hear that not only at Ephesus but almost throughout all Asia this Paul has persuaded and turned away a considerable company of people, saying that gods made with hands are not gods.
27 And there is danger not only that this trade of ours may come into disrepute but also that the [tax-exempt?] temple of the great goddess Artemis [containing the Qur'an and/or so-called "Sacred Black Stone From Heaven" in Mecca?] may count for nothing, and that she may even be deposed from her magnificence, she whom all Asia and the world worship."
28 When they heard this they were enraged ['Don't Rock The Boat, Baby!'], and cried out, "Great is Artemis ["allah"] of the Ephesians [moslems]!"
29 So the city was filled with the confusion; and they rushed together into the theater, dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, Macedonians who were Paul's companions in travel.
30 Paul wished to go in among the crowd, but the disciples would not let him;
31 some of the Asiarchs also, who were friends of his, sent to him and begged him not to venture into the theater.
32 Now some cried one thing, some another; for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had come together.
33 Some of the crowd prompted Alexander, whom the Jews had put forward. And Alexander motioned with his hand, wishing to make a defense to the people.
34 But when they recognized that he was a Jew, for about two hours they all with one voice cried out, "Great is Artemis ["allah"] of the Ephesians [moslems]!"
35 And when the town clerk had quieted the crowd, he said, "Men of Ephesus, what man is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is temple keeper of the great Artemis, and of the sacred stone ['Holy Meterorite!'] that fell from the sky?
36 Seeing then that these things cannot be contradicted, you ought to be quiet and do nothing rash.
37 For you have brought these men here who are neither sacrilegious nor blasphemers of our goddess.
38 If therefore Demetrius and the craftsmen with him have a complaint against any one, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another.
39 But if you seek anything further, it shall be settled in the regular assembly.
40 For we are in danger of being charged with rioting today, there being no cause that we can give to justify this commotion."
41 And when he had said this, he dismissed the assembly.
There would be no trouble for me or those like myself cursing "allah" - in my opinion, and from my point of view - being that I am not absolutely certain of what is meant by "allah" and if godlike divinity is implied, inferred, or insinuated by the persian-sounding term, although am I reasonably sure that it(?) (i.e. "allah") does not exist but rather was a pseudo-entity dishonestly and deviantly concocted in the imagination of islam-founder Mohammed and thereafter frequently-viciously-and-ruthlessly perpetuated by his voluntarily-superstitious, ignorantly-conformist, or willfully-gullible similarly-anti-Christian/antisemitic muslim followers.
For the sake of not being reported to be a trouble-inciting public nuisance guilty of disturbing the peace in confronting allah-and-Qur'an-idolatrous muslims, an approach like Saint Paul used would probably be preferable:
Acts 17:16 Now while Paul was waiting for them at Athens, his spirit was provoked within him as he saw that the city was full of idols.
17 So he argued in the synagogue with the Jews and the devout persons, and in the market place every day with those who chanced to be there.
18 Some also of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers met him. And some said, "What would this babbler say?" Others said, "He seems to be a preacher of foreign divinities," because he preached Jesus and the resurrection.
19 And they took hold of him and brought him to the Areopagus, saying, "May we know what this new teaching is which you present?
20 For you bring some strange things to our ears; we wish to know therefore what these things mean."
21 Now all the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there spent their time in nothing except telling or hearing something new [sort of like the blurblings within most European and American universities and colleges, plus apostate rants on TV].
22 So Paul, standing in the middle of the Areopagus, said: "Men of Athens, I perceive that in every way you are very religious [including you whack-job crazed-countenance loonies sporting explosives-attached islamo-terrorist suicide-suit bomb vests, insanely expecting non-mormon never-never-land naked nymphos in Nirvana?].
23 For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription, 'To An Unknown God.' What therefore you worship as unknown, this I proclaim to you.
24 The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by man,
25 nor is He [not she, as the titular head] served by human hands, as though He needed anything, since He himself gives to all men life and breath and everything
. 26 And He made from one every nation of humanity to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their habitation,
27 that they should seek God, in the hope that they might feel after Him [anyone for yoga channeling, meditation and massage?] and find Him. Yet He is not far from each one of us,
28 for 'In him we live and move and have our being' [sounds pantheistic, with environmentalist-nutcase Mother-Earth worship?]; as even some of your poets have said, 'For we are indeed His offspring.'
29 Being then God's offspring, we ought not to think that the Deity is like gold, or silver, or stone, a representation by the art and imagination of humans.
30 The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now He commands all men everywhere to repent,
31 because He has fixed a Day on which He will judge the world in righteousness by a Man whom He has appointed, and of this He has given assurance to all men by raising Him from the dead."
32 Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead [not a common nor usual event down at the local cemetery], some mocked ; but others said, "We will hear you again about this."
33 So Paul went out from among them.
34 But some men joined him and believed [wonder of wonders?], among them Dionysius the Areopagite and a woman named Damaris and others with them.
After personally reading parts of the Koran (briefly speed-reading an English version of what is alleged to be "The" Qur'an), I detected three concepts . . . the first of which is a gross misrepresentation against the person of Jesus Christ, Son of God, and Creator or planet Earth and the entire Universe - which brings to mind the following verses:
Second Kings 18:29 Thus says the king: 'Do not let Hezekiah deceive you, for he will not be able to deliver you out of my hand.
2Ki 19:10 'Thus shall you speak to Hezekiah king of Judah: 'Do not let your God on whom you rely deceive you by promising that Jerusalem will not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria.
2Ch 32:15 Now therefore do not let Hezekiah deceive you or mislead you in this fashion, and do not believe him, for no god of any nation or kingdom has been able to deliver his people from my hand or from the hand of my fathers. How much less will your God deliver you out of my hand!'"
Job 13:9 Will it be well with you when He searches you out? Or can you deceive Him, as one deceives a man?
Isaiah 36:14 Thus says the king: 'Do not let Hezekiah deceive you, for he will not be able to deliver you.
Isa 37:10 'Thus shall you speak to Hezekiah king of Judah: "Do not let your God on whom you rely deceive you by promising that Jerusalem will not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria."
Jeremiah 29:8 For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: "Do not let your prophets and your diviners who are among you deceive you, and do not listen to the dreams which they dream . . ."
Zechariah 13:4 On that day every prophet will be ashamed of his vision when he prophesies; he will not put on a hairy mantle in order to deceive . . .
John 8:58 Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM."
John 14:6 Jesus said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but by me. [Take it seriously from a better-than-Houdini guy who give sight to a man born blind, feeds 5000 with a box lunch, walks on water, changes water into wine, instantly stops a raging sea storm, raises a guy to life who was dead for four days, resurrects Himself back to life after being crucified dead, slowly ascends into the sky like a NASA rocket, etc.]
Acts 4:12 And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved."
Colossians 1:17 [Jesus, The Son of God] is before all things, and in Him all things hold together [despite the Big-Big-Baloney fairy tale].
Colossians 2:18 Let no one disqualify you, insisting on self-abasement and worship of angels [Case in point: Islam Mohammed and Mormon Joseph Smith], taking his stand on visions, puffed up without reason by his sensuous mind,
Co 2:19 and not holding fast to the Head, from whom the whole body, nourished and knit together through its joints and ligaments, grows with a growth that is from God.
Co 2:20 If with Christ you died to the elemental spirits of the universe, why do you live as if you still belonged to the world? Why do you submit to regulations,
Co 2:21 Do not handle, Do not taste, Do not touch
Co 2:22 referring to things which all perish as they are used, according to human precepts and doctrines?
Co 2:23 These have indeed an [show-off] appearance of wisdom in promoting [buddhist-monk-style] rigor of devotion and self-abasement and severity to the body, but they are of no value in checking the [habits-addicted] indulgence of the flesh.
Hebrews 1:8 But of the Son [God, the Father] says, "Your throne, God, is forever, the righteous scepter is the scepter of your kingdom.
9 You have righteousness and hated lawlessness; therefore God [The Father], your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your comrades."
10 And, "You, Lord, did found the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands;
11 they will perish, but you remain; they will all grow old like a garment,
12 like a mantle you will roll them up, and they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will never end."
First John 2:22 Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, he who denies the Father and the Son.
1Jo 2:23 No one who denies the Son has the Father. He who confesses the Son has the Father also.
DO self-proclaimed "monotheistic" muslims claim that one-singular-god "allah" (who through an purported intermediary presumably-"holy" "angel" supposedly inspired the humanly-written different-versions Koran) is said to be "benevolent and merciful" as "his"/"its" Koran instructs islamic to hate and murder both Jews and Christians?
First John 5:1 Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God, and every one that loves Him who begot, loves Him also that is begotten by Him.
2 By this we know that we love the children of God: when we love God and keep [i.e. retain and obey] His commandments.
3 For this is the love of God: that we keep [ALL] His commandments [which does not include being tolerant of homogays, abortion homicide, porn, evolution, sexist feminism, etc.]; and His commandments are not grievous [i.e. too tough for us residually-imperfect persons].
4 For whosoever is born of God overcomes the world. And this is the victory that overcomes the world, even our faith.
5 Who is he that overcomes the world, but he that believes that Jesus is the Son of God [superstar gospel-singer Elvis did]?
6 This is He who came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who bears witness, because the Spirit is truth.
7 For there are three who bear record in Heaven: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one.
Assuredly, muslims do religiously acclaim their dead-and-still-dead cultist leader Mohammed who lived for a short while about 500 years after the birth of the conceived-without-human-father/crucified-dead/resurrected/to-heaven-ascended Jesus Christ, and thus obviously had at least tertiary or indirect contact with enough Old and New Testament Hebrew and Greek Scriptures to be momentously confronted by the Holy Spirit as to whether he would accept the Judeo-Christian law and gospel . . . or instead go off on some deviant tangent rejecting it and making up his own twisted and warped version of or against such.
I will not prolong disclosure of the strangely-antagonistic contents of the Koran against Christians and Jews, except to add that the historical info traceable way back to both Ishmael and Esau, neither of whom were chosen to retain and maintain the promises, inheritance, and territories allocated [study Ezekiel chapter 47 for the Promised-Land border parameters] to the believing and faithfully-obedient Hebrew descendants of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob (such as Moses, Joshua, Gideon, Samson, Samuel, David, Solomon, etc.)
Genesis 25:32 Esau said, "I am about to die; of what use is a birthright to me?"
Obadiah 1:8 "Will I not on that day," says the LORD, "destroy the wise men out of Edom, and understanding out of Mount Esau?
Ob 1:9 And your mighty men shall be dismayed, Teman, so that every man from Mount Esau will be cut off by slaughter."
Ob 1:19 Those of the Negeb shall possess Mount Esau, and those of the Shephelah the land of the Philistines; they shall possess the land of Ephraim and the land of Samaria and Benjamin shall possess Gilead.
Ob 1:21 Saviors shall go up to Mount Zion to rule Mount Esau; and the kingdom shall be the LORD's.
Romans 9:13 As it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated."
Ro 9:20 But who are you, a man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, "Why have you made me thus?"
Jer 3:2 Lift up your eyes to the bare heights, and see! Where have you not been lain with? By the waysides you have sat awaiting lovers like an Arab in the wilderness [what kind of a lurid sex-life of lustfully-lewd shenanigans did Mohammed have?]. You have polluted the land with your vile harlotry.
Galatians 4:21 Tell me, you who desire to be under law, do you not hear the law?
Ga 4: 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by a slave and one by a free woman.
23 But the son of the slave [Ishmael of the islamo-arabs] was born according to the flesh, the son of the free woman [Ishmael's Hebrew-brother Isaac] through promise.
24 Now this is an allegory: these women are two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children for slavery; she is Hagar.
25 Now Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia; she corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children.
26 But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother.
27 For it is written, "Rejoice, barren one who does not bear; break forth and shout, you who are not in travail; for the children of the desolate one are many more than the children of her that is married."
28 Now we, brethren, like Isaac, are children of promise.
29 But as at that time he [the islamo-arab patriarch] who was born according to the flesh persecuted him [true Jews with the lineage of Ruth the Moabitess not of the synagogue of Satan] who was born according to the Spirit, so it is now.
30 But what does the scripture say? "Throw out the slave and her son; for the son of the slave shall not inherit with the son of the free woman."
31 So, brethren, we are not children of the slave but of the free woman.
Getting back to my dilemma I first mentioned at the beginning of this literary quasi-masterpiece, the Koran does contain random-occurring snippets here and there pertaining to modesty of women who ally themselves with such Koran as fundamentalist adherents.
I must say that, in somewhat thoroughly and exhaustively scanning through the Koran looking for textual references to women wearing hijabshawls, burka robes - reaching to the wrists and ankles (even donning and displaying such during seasonably warm weather), that I have never found explicit nor exact semantics requiring such quite-modest attire. Perhaps follow-up talmudic/apocryphal-like commentaries on Koran contents from a succession of islamic mullah clerics came up with all that.
In any case, there is the crux of my dilemma.
How do I gently and kindly communicate to very-modestly-dressed fundamentalist islamic/muslim women most honorably and admirably attired with such refreshingly-decent full-length shawls and robes . . . encouraging and recommending to them that they certainly retain such exquisitely-respectable wardrobe -- while simultaneously replacing their cultic and pagan religious superstitions involving their so-called "prophet" Mohammed and their make-believe fictitious "allah" . . . understandably replaced with belief in and worship of The LORD of the Judeo-Christian Bible - identified by the name 'Jesus Christ" - associated with His law and gospel of redemption through their God-given belief in His atonement for them instead of their pathetic attempts of human inconsistencies and failures in sporadic and erratic human behaviors and misbehaviors?
Both belief in Deity, and obedience to what that Deity is said to require in His humanly-authored Holy Book, cannot be forced on anyone against their will.
America's 'founding fathers' - in their inceptual documents describing a Creator endowing everyone with inalienable rights - recognized this characteristic and attribute as freedom described with the First Amendment Constitutional phraseology of: "Congress shall make no law establishing religion, no prohibiting the free exercise thereof." By such semantics, they rightfully understood the existence of religion, but not the mandate nor enforced sectarian denominalization of it.
Belief in Deity is a matter of personal choice influenced by outside factors of hopefully-painless, rewards-bestowing, persuasion - as is dogmatically cleaving to doctrinal tenants of what that Deity is assumed to require.
As has been clearly seen in past human history, no form nor severities of retribution or punishment for disbelief nor disobedience is ultimately convincing and effective in forcing persons to believe and/or do what others want them to do (e.g. slanderous ridicule, depriving of employment, lawsuits, legal fines, imprisonment, shoutings, vulgar expletives, acid in the face, extremity amputations, waterboardings, bashing with wooden or metal clubs, stabbings, shockings, setting bodies on fire, firing bullets [with a .357 or .44 or .500 magnum pistol] into shins or kneecaps or shoulder blades, crushing bodies, etc.)
If the reader presumes that sharia law of fundamentalist islamic muslim is harsh and cruel, literal application of the first five books of Moses the Hebrew prophet (commonly known as The Torah) is both much more severe yet far more fair and just as to exactly what precisely constitutes "unlawful" and"illegal" criminal thoughts, words, and actions and the proper degrees and types of punishments for offenses committed for interdependent community well-being and survival.
Along those lines, the Judeo-Christian Bible is thankfully MUCH more logically-formatted, explicitly-detailed, and sensibly described regarding how human females should appear in mixed-gender general public view with righteous-decent and respectably-sacred modesty in mind. Indeed, Holy Writ is adequately graphic enough to be not merely helpful but enlightening as to not so much what type of clothing material should or must be worn (e.g. rayon, nylon, polyester, cotton, silk, sackcloth, and so on) - but instead what specifically-mentioned body parts such clothing should consistently cover, depending upon the occasion.
Leviticus 19:19 You shall keep my statutes. You shall not let your cattle breed with a different kind; you shall not plant your field with two kinds of seed; nor shall there come upon you a garment of cloth made of two kinds of stuff.
Some examples of what body parts are mentioned as to clothes coverings, or need to be covered under general-public-view circumstances are:
Genesis 2:25 And the man and his wife were both naked, and were not ashamed.
Ge 3:7 Then the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves aprons.
Ge 3:21 And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of [PETA-approved?] skins, and clothed them.
Numbers 5:18 And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and unbind the hair of the woman's head [sexy, huh?], and place in her hands the cereal offering of remembrance, which is the cereal offering of jealousy. And in his hand the priest shall have the water of bitterness that brings the curse.
Second Samuel 13:18 (RSV & NASV) Now she was wearing a full-length long robe with long sleeves; for thus were the virgin daughters of the king traditionally clad. So his servant put her out, and bolted the door after her.
Isaiah 47:1 Come down and sit in the dust, virgin daughter of Babylon; sit on the ground without a throne, daughter of the Chaldeans! For you shall no more be called tender and delicate.
Is 47:2 Take the millstones and grind meal, put off your veil, strip off your robe, uncover your legs, pass through the rivers.
Is 47:3 Your nakedness shall be uncovered, and your shame shall be seen. I will take vengeance, and I will spare no human.
Is 47:4 Our Redeemer [redemption against previous immodesties is possible!], the LORD of hosts is his name: the Holy One of Israel.
Is 47:5 Sit in silence, and go into darkness, daughter of the Chaldeans; for you shall no more be called the mistress of kingdoms.
Jer 2:25 Keep your feet from going unshod and your throat from thirst. But you said, 'It is hopeless, for I have loved strangers, and after them I will go.'
Song 7:1 How graceful are your footsteps in sandals, royal maiden! Your rounded thighs are like jewels, the work of a master hand.
Song 7:2 Your navel is a rounded bowl that never lacks mixed wine. Your belly is a heap of wheat, encircled with lilies.
Song 7:3 Your two breasts are like two fawns, twins of a gazelle.
Song 7:4 Your neck is like an ivory tower. Your eyes are pools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bathrabbim. Your nose is like a tower of Lebanon, overlooking Damascus.
Song 7:5 Your head crowns you like Carmel, and your flowing locks are like purple; a king is held captive in the tresses.
Song 7:6 How pretty and pleasant you are, loved one, delectable maiden!
Song 7:7 You are stately [nice posture!] as a palm tree, and your breasts are like its clusters.
Song 7:8 I say I will climb the palm tree and lay hold of its branches. Oh, may your breasts be like clusters of the vine, and the scent of your breath like apples [with or without Lavoris or breath mints],
Song 7:9 and your kisses like the best wine that goes down smoothly, gliding over lips and teeth of sleepers.
Song 7:10 I am my beloved's, and his desire is for me [not a roving female irresponsibly, carelessly, egotistically, sadistically, or selfishly misdressed in sleevesless or slacksless or soxless swimsuit like some suggestively-enticing whore].
First Corinthians 11:14 Does not nature itself teach you that for a man to wear long hair is degrading to him,
15 but if a woman has long hair, it is her glory? For her hair is given to her for a covering.
16 If any one wants to be contentious, we recognize no such practice [of allowing a woman to regard her publicly-displayable loose-long-haired mopheadedness as sufficient for a prayer-veil covering], nor do the churches of God.
First Corinthians 12:23 . . . and those parts of the body which we think less honorable we invest with the greater honor, and our unpresentable parts are treated with greater modesty,
24 which our more presentable parts do not require. But God has so composed the body, giving the greater honor to the inferior part . . .
In summary, it is possible, in some cases, to inform and gently persuade the hijab or burka-dressed islamic muslim girl or woman to leave the heresy of cultic allahism and mohammedism and turn to the Trinitarian God as her actual, real, and bonafide Savior and Lord . . . while being perfectly acceptant and accommodating to her very-modest ongoing witness and reaffirmation of:
First Timothy 2:8 I desire then that in every place the men should pray, lifting holy hands without anger or quarreling [your typical knock-em-down bar-room brawling?];
9 also that women should adorn themselves modestly and sensibly in decent apparel, not with plaited hair or gold or pearls or costly attire [nude strip-joint danceresses?]
10 but by good works, as befits women who profess religion.
11 Let a woman learn in silence with all submissiveness [Sorry, Sarah Palin and Migraine Michele!].
12 I allow no woman to teach or to have authority over men [including High-Court Sotomayor and Kagan]; she is to keep silent.
13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve;
14 and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor.
15 Yet woman will be saved through bearing children [NOT abusing herself and God's womb-babe inside her against the health and reproductive freedom of both souls with contraceptives and abortion homicide], if she continues in faith and love and holiness, with sobriety.
It is fascinating to view the faces of shawled-and-robed muslim women I encounter in my upper midwest 'neck of the woods' - in that some appear loveless, avoiding congenial eye-contact, with a subtle quietly-hateful look of exclusivity . . .while other's display a responsively smiling and friendly face plainly having been positively influenced by Christians and the pleasant effects of Christians around them.
To the latter mentioned above, it is my hope and prayer that such will, in theirs and His ways and timing, come to a fuller and more complete knowledge and acceptance of the blessed contents of the Judeo-Christian Old-and-New-Testaments Holy Bible of our Lord Jesus Christ so that they enter into and continue with a saving relationship with Him.